The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced a worldwide wellbeing crisis over another coronavirus that has executed in excess of 2,700 individuals overall after a flare-up in the focal Chinese city of Wuhan. Here you will get to know the ultimate guide to Coronavirus and its symptoms, risks, and precautions you need to know about Coronavirus. More than 80,000 cases of infection have been reported globally, most of them in mainland China.
Although India now has three confirmed cases of the Novel Coronavirus, which has claimed over 400 lives in China so far. The third case is from Kerala’s Kasargod district. The patient is said to be stable. The second case from the state is being monitored in an isolation ward at Alappuzha Medical College. The patient who first tested positive for coronavirus is currently hospitalized in Thrissur Medical College and her condition is stable. Kerala has declared a state of calamity after the three positive.
What is Coronavirus?
According to the WHO, coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The name coronavirus comes from the Latin word corona, meaning crown or halo. Under an electron microscope, the image of the virus looks like a solar corona.
These viruses were originally transmitted between animals and people. SARS, for instance, was transmitted from civet cats to humans while MERS moved to humans from a type of camel. The novel coronavirus, identified by Chinese authorities on January 7 and since named COVID-19, is a new strain that had not been previously identified in humans. Little is known about it, although human-to-human transmission has been confirmed.
Several known viruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans.
How is the Coronavirus spreading?
Health officials are still trying to better understand how COVID-19 is spreading among people. Most of what experts do know is largely based on what is known about similar coronaviruses. When person-to-person transmission occurred with Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes from an infected person were the likely culprit, according to the CDC. Those droplets can land in the mouths or noses of nearby people or be inhaled into the lungs.
It may be possible to get COVID-19 by touching a contaminated surface or object and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes, “but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads,” the CDC says.
Health officials are still working to better understand how easily the virus is spread from person to person. It may be possible for an infected person to spread the virus before exhibiting symptoms. However, people are thought to be most contagious when they are sick with the symptoms of the virus, the CDC says.
What are the symptoms of Coronavirus?
According to the WHO, signs of infection include fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties.
In more severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia, multiple organ failure, and even death.
Current estimates of the incubation period – the amount of time between infection and the onset of symptoms – ranging from one to 14 days. Most infected people show symptoms within five to six days. As this is viral pneumonia, antibiotics are of no use. The antiviral drugs we have against the flu will not work. Recovery depends on the strength of the immune system. Many of those who have died were already in poor health.
There is no vaccine for the new coronavirus, but researchers at the U.S. National Institutes of Health confirmed they were in the preliminary stages of developing one. Officials plan to launch a phase 1 clinical trial of a potential vaccine within the next few months, Dr. Anthony Fauci, Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said in a news conference on Jan. 28.
Researchers are also working on gathering samples of the virus to design a therapy that will train patients’ immune cells to detect and destroy the virus, Fauci said.
However, infected patients can also be asymptomatic, meaning they do not display any symptoms despite having the virus in their systems.
Are Older Adults more at Risk?
Older adults are being hit particularly hard by the coronavirus, early data show. The majority of people who have died from the disease are over age 50, Bloomberg reports, citing information from China’s National Health Commission. And a study in the New England Journal of Medicine that analyzed the first 425 people with the virus found that the median age of patients was 59.
“Obviously, older people have fewer reserves, so they’re more at risk for any type of infection causing complications,” says Amesh Adalja, an infectious disease physician and senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security. This includes other respiratory illnesses, such as the flu and pneumonia.
The CDC’s Messonnier says the agency is “working on everything we can do” to make sure older adults and people with underlying health conditions have access to “optimal care,” should they become sick with the coronavirus.
As for how older Americans should be protecting themselves, Adalja adds, “There’s nothing particularly that I would do other than the normal commonsense hand-hygiene etiquette.”
How can people protect themselves and others?
The best way to prevent the spread of COVID-19 is to avoid exposure. This is why the CDC has recommended avoiding trips to China and has heightened travel warnings for areas with sustained community spread.
Health officials also advise taking everyday steps that can prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. Wash your hands often with soap and water (scrub for at least 20 seconds), and use alcohol-based hand sanitizer when soap is not an option. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands, and steer clear of sick people.
Some other advice: Stay home when you are sick, and clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.
Precautions You Should Take to Protect Yourself from Coronavirus
The best way to prevent infection with COVID-19 is to avoid being exposed to the virus, according to the CDC. In general, the CDC recommends the following to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses: Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds; avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands; avoid close contact with people who are sick; stay home when you are sick and clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.
People who traveled to China and became sick with fever, cough or difficulty breathing within the following two weeks should seek medical care right away, and call ahead to inform the medical staff about their recent travel, the CDC said.
The CDC does not recommend face masks for people who are well and without symptoms. The agency does recommend face masks for people who show symptoms of the virus and those taking care of someone sick with the virus (including health care workers).
The Ultimate Guide To Coronavirus You Must Follow
Health experts and mask makers say only a properly used reusable N95 respirator mask certified by an independent agency can guard against the virus. Paper or polyurethane foam masks don’t filter out smaller particles responsible for transmitting infectious agents. They may help prevent sick people from transmitting to others.
What about those Face Masks?
Surgical masks offer some level of protection but only when worn properly. Experts recommend a snug-fitting N95 respirator, which blocks large-particle droplets and most small particles that are transmitted by coughs and sneezes, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These masks are available at most drugstores and home-improvement outlets.
That said, there is no need for them among the general public in the U.S. at this time, Messonnier says. And depleting supplies now will only make preventive efforts more complicated if the virus starts spreading in communities.
How Effective are Masks?
The World Health Organization and other experts report that a mask’s efficacy in social settings is inconclusive. But some health experts and mask makers say that properly used, the N95 respirator mask can guard against the new coronavirus.
Coronavirus Vaccine Updates
- Scientists around the world are working on potential treatments and vaccines for the new coronavirus disease known as COVID-19.
- Several companies are working on antiviral drugs, some of which are already in use against other illnesses, to treat people who have COVID-19.
- Other companies are working on vaccines that could be used as a preventive measure against the disease.
Latest Vaccine Used to Treat Coronavirus
Favilavir, the First Approved Coronavirus Drug in China
The National Medical Products Administration of China has approved the use of Favilavir, an anti-viral drug, as a treatment for coronavirus. The drug has reportedly shown efficacy in treating the disease with minimal side effects in a clinical trial involving 70 patients. The clinical trial is being conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong province.
Here’s a Look at More COVID-19 Vaccines
Moderna / National Institutes of Health. The company began testing its two-dose messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine in March in a phase 1 clinical trial, with promising results.
In late July, Moderna began phase 3 clinical trials of the vaccine.
In late August, company officials said preliminary phase 1 trial data showed that the vaccine elicited a promising immune response in 10 people between the ages of 56 and 70 as well as 10 people over age of 70.
The company announced in late October that it had finished recruiting all 30,000 participants in the phase 3 trial. This included more than 7,000 people over the age of 65 and more than 5,000 younger people with chronic conditions that increase their risk of severe COVID-19.
In early October, company officials announced their vaccine won’t be available for wide distribution until spring 2021. Later in the month, Moderna’s CEO told investors that the trial’s data and safety monitoring board could start analyzing study data in November.
In mid-November, Moderna officials reported that their vaccine had achieved an effective rate of 94 percent in initial phase 3 trial results. Experts said more testing and more information is needed.
On November 30, Moderna officials said they would apply to the FDA for its vaccine to be approved for emergency use. Company executives said the vaccine could be available by December 21 if it receives FDA approval.
Pfizer / BioNTech / Fosun Pharma. Drugmaker Pfizer teamed up German biotech company BioNTech and Chinese drugmaker Fosun Pharma to develop a two-dose mRNA vaccine.
In mid-August, company officials said the vaccine had produced a “robust” response in a phase 1/2 clinical trial.
The company launched a phase 3 trial in late July, with a goal to recruit 30,000 people from the United States, Brazil, Argentina, and Germany. They later announced plans to increase this to 44,000 people. In October, the company said it received approval to enroll children as young as 12 years in the trial — the first American trial to include this age group.
As of late October, the trial had enrolled more than 42,000 people. At the time, the company had not yet conducted an interim analysis of the study data, which puts it behind its original goal of doing so by September. However, the company still expects to have enough data sometime in November to apply for emergency use authorization from the FDA.
On November 9, the company announced that its vaccine had been more than 90 percent effective in clinical trial participants.
A few days later, company officials announced they were applying for an emergency use authorization from the FDA for their vaccine. It was the first regulatory approval in the United States for a COVID-19 vaccine. The officials said the vaccine could be available to high-risk groups as early as mid-December.
On December 8, the FDA released documents that reported the Pfizer vaccine offers some protection after the first dose and nearly full protection after a second dose.
Inovio. When COVID-19 appeared in December, drugmaker Inovio had already been working on a DNA vaccine for MERS, which is caused by another coronavirus. This allowed the company to quickly develop a potential COVID-19 vaccine.
Company officials announced at the end of April that it had enrolled 40 healthy volunteers in its phase 1 trial. In late September, the company announced that its phase 2/3 trial is on hold as the it responds to the FDA’s questions about the study.
Sanofi / Translate Bio. Drugmaker Sanofi announced in February that it would work with Translate Bio to develop an mRNA vaccine. Preclinical testing showed that the vaccine could elicit a strong immune response in mice and monkeys. The company expects results from its phase 2 trial in early December. After that, they will start a phase 3 study.
CanSino Biologics. Scientists at this Chinese company are also working on a potential vaccine that uses an adenovirus known as Ad5 to carry coronavirus proteins into cells.
In late July, they reported that participants in a phase 2 trial showed a strong immune response when given the vaccine. However, they noted older adults had a weaker response, suggesting two doses might be needed for that segment of the population.
The Chinese military approved the vaccine in June, allowing the vaccine to be given to its armed forces. In August, the company began phase 3 trials in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Russia.
Gamaleya Research Institute. This Russian institute developed a vaccine that includes two adenoviruses, Ad5 and Ad26.
In August, President Vladimir Putin announced that the country’s regulatory agency had approved the vaccine, even before phase 3 trials had started. Russian officials later said the vaccine had received a “conditional registration certificate.”
Results of a phase 1/2 trial found that the vaccine elicited an immune response with mild side effects. Phase 3 trials are currently underway in Russia, Belarus, United Arab Emirates, and India.
Johnson & Johnson. Drugmaker Johnson & Johnson announced in late July that it had begun a phase 1/2 trial in people after their adenovirus vaccine had shown promising results when used in monkeys.
In late September, the company announced it was starting a phase 3 trial of its one-dose vaccine with 60,000 participants. In mid-October, the company announced it was pausing this trial due to an “unexplained illness” with one of the participants. The company has since received permission to restart the study.
In mid-November, Johnson & Johnson officials said they expected their vaccine to be ready for FDA approval by February.
AstraZeneca / University of Oxford. A phase 1 clinical trial at the University of Oxford began in late April. The vaccine is based on a chimpanzee adenovirus, which shuttles coronavirus proteins into cells.
In August, AstraZeneca began phase 3 trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. These trials were halted in September when a study volunteer developed a rare spinal inflammatory disorder called transverse myelitis. The trials were restarted a week later in Brazil and the United Kingdom. In late October, the FDA authorized the U.S. trial to resume.
In mid-November, company officials said their vaccine had produced a strong immune response in a clinical trial that involved people over the age of 70.
Data released on December 8 indicated that the vaccine was safe but only about 70 percent effective.
Sanofi / GSK / TranslateBio. Drugmaker Sanofi is pursuing two vaccines. The company is working with drugmaker GSK on a vaccine based on proteins from the coronavirus. When combined with another compound, called an adjuvant, the proteins elicit an immune response. They expect results from a phase 2 trial in early December, after which they will begin a phase 3 study.
Sanofi is also working with biotech company to Translate Bio to develop an mRNA vaccine. They expect to start clinical trials in December.
Novavax. This company received up to $388 million in funding this spring from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), a group that has funded COVID-19 vaccine development. The vaccine is made by attaching virus proteins to microscopic particles.
In August, Novavax launched a phase 2 trial in South Africa. A month later, the company began a phase 3 trial in the United Kingdom. It plans to start another phase 3 trial in the United States by the end of November.
University of Queensland in Australia / CSL. Researchers at the university developed a vaccine by growing viral proteins in cell cultures. They began preclinical testing stages in early April. The phase 1 trial in people began in early July. A phase 2/3 trial is expected to start late this year.
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm. Chinese company Sinopharm is testing an inactivated virus vaccine developed by the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products. After a successful phase 1 trial, researchers launched phase 3 trials in the UAE in July and a month later in Peru and Morocco.
Beijing Institute of Biological Products / Sinopharm. Sinopharm is testing a second inactivated virus vaccine developed by Beijing Institute of Biological Products.
Phase 3 trials began in June in the UAE and in September in Argentina. In September, the UAE approved the vaccine for use on healthcare workers even before the results of the phase 3 trials.
Sinovac Biotech. This Chinese company launched phase 3 trials of its inactivated virus vaccine in Brazil in July, Indonesia in August, and Turkey in September. In August, the Chinese government issued emergency approval for the vaccine for use on high-risk groups.
Bharat Biotech / Indian Council of Medical Research / Indian National Institute of Virology. Indian company Bharat announced in late October that it was beginning a phase 3 trial of its inactivated virus vaccine.
Symptoms, Risks, and Precautions You Need to Know About Coronavirus Youtube Video
Here is the youtube video for the ultimate guide to Coronavirus.
Conclusion on Dangerous Coronavirus
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